The following comes from a Nov. 1 posting on Real Clear Religion by Philip Jenkins, history professor from Baylor University.
Francis Spufford is an English writer who writes Christian apologetics — although from a far more liberal perspective than many Americans would find to their taste. He was recently interviewed in the New York Times. One remark he made in passing cited a well-established historical myth, which I was not expecting to see revived, but there it was. It pointed yet again to the power of myth in shaping popular views of Christian history.
Spufford was asked what in the faith gave him confidence. He replied,
Two thousand years of church history. There have been low moments before, but Christianity is an incredibly adaptable organism, using different parts of its repertoire to mutate into new ecological niches, yet preserving intact its story of grace, of love improbably triumphant. What looks immemorial in Christianity now is often the product of previous bouts of successful adaptation, like the Catholic invention of clerical celibacy in the 10th century A.D., or the reformers’ invention of marriage as a temple of affection, in the 16th century. These are turbulent times for the churches — but then, they usually are. In a hundred years, Christianity will have mutated into something utterly unpredictable which, nevertheless, we’d recognize immediately. And same-sex marriage will be one of the fine old God-given traditions that conservatives leap to defend.
Now, there’s plenty to argue with here, but I want to focus on that line about “the Catholic invention of clerical celibacy in the 10th century A.D.” You’ll see similar remarks commonly around the Internet, and that chronology has become an article of faith, so to speak, for reformist Catholics. It usually goes like this: Somewhere in the 10th or 11th centuries, the Western Church invented and imposed celibacy on priests, chiefly for material reasons. Church leaders did not want priests to acquire property rights in church lands, and pass them to their heirs. Hence the celibate clergy. Also, critically, because the practice began so late, in the supposedly benighted Middle Ages, celibacy cannot claim the warrant of antiquity — it was not from the esteemed “Early Church.”
There’s so much wrong here it’s hard to begin. True, different parts of the church have had different attitudes to celibacy. In Orthodox churches, priests marry while monks don’t, and bishops are drawn from monks. (Celibacy has of course been demanded of all monks since earliest times).
But as it stands, the simple idea that the Western church “invented” celibacy around 1000 is bogus. Around 300, the Spanish synod of Elvira expressed the demands of celibacy in stark terms. (And that was very much in the era of the “Early” pre-Constantinian church). The bishops gathered at Elvira knew that clergy might have been married in their lay state, but once they were ordained, strict denial was demanded:
Bishops, presbyters, deacons, and others with a position in the ministry are to abstain completely from sexual intercourse with their wives and from the procreation of children. If anyone disobeys, he shall be removed from the clerical office.
Nor was Elvira unique. From the third century through the sixth, many Western councils sought to redraw and enforce the celibacy rules, usually in the direction of greater stringency. Bishops and priests should be celibate, of course — but what about deacons? And subdeacons? If clergy were married beforehand, of course they should give up sexual relations, but could they still live together with their wives, in celibacy? Council after council imposed harsher rules.
Those rules were firmly and clearly in place across Western Europe by, say, 600. Over the following centuries, they certainly relaxed to the point of collapse, so that by the tenth century or so, clerical marriage had become very widespread. That in turn provoked the reform movements that Spufford is referring to — but these, obviously, were restatements of familiar ancient ideas, rather than any kind of “invention.”
Where do they get this stuff?
To read the entire posting, click here.
1 Cor 7:32-35
“32 I want you to be free from anxieties. The unmarried man is anxious about the affairs of the Lord, how to please the Lord;
33 but the married man is anxious about worldly affairs, how to please his wife,
34 and his interests are divided. And the unmarried woman or girl is anxious about the affairs of the Lord, how to be holy in body and spirit; but the married woman is anxious about worldly affairs, how to please her husband.”
“1579 All the ordained ministers of the Latin Church, with the exception of permanent deacons, are normally chosen from among men of faith who live a celibate life and who intend to remain celibate “for the sake of the kingdom of heaven.”
Called to consecrate themselves with undivided heart to the Lord and to “the affairs of the Lord,” they give themselves entirely to God and to men. Celibacy is a sign of this new life to the service of which the Church’s minister is consecrated; accepted with a joyous heart celibacy radiantly proclaims the Reign of God.”
CCC: “1580 In the Eastern Churches a different discipline has been in force for many centuries: while bishops are chosen solely from among celibates, married men can be ordained as deacons and priests. This practice has long been considered legitimate; these priests exercise a fruitful ministry within their communities. Moreover, priestly celibacy is held in great honor in the Eastern Churches and many priests have freely chosen it for the sake of the Kingdom of God.
In the East as in the West a man who has already received the sacrament of Holy Orders can no longer marry.”
Married priests are more down to earth in their homilies.
Unmarried priests are afraid of women, this is why they think that only men know God- and therefore define rules from an exclusive male point of view.
All single-male priesthood impose male experience of God on women.
Women in Curia Romana would have saved many disasters brought in the church by all-male priesthood.
jenny you have a negative point of view….(they are afriad of women????) Wow, to say the least, I can understand why there is a bit of everything in the priesthood. Its not good to put them all in the same box, there is a bit of everything.
These are the words from an “Unmarried” (as you have used that phrase) Archbishop, I can hope you can enjoy and lighten up a little on the negative thinking, I know some priests don’t have a clue but there are also the ones who are gifted too, look to St. Padre Pio, he understood us women very well. Good holy saint.
“When a man loves a woman, he has to become worthy of her. The higher her virtue, the more noble her character, the more devoted she is to truth, justice, goodness, the more a man has to aspire to be worthy of her. The history of civilization could actually be written in terms of the level of its women.”
― Fulton J. Sheen, Life Is Worth Living
jenny this doesn’t sound like its coming from a man that is afraid of women, as you have quoted
“The difference between the love of a man and the love of a woman is that a man will always give reasons for loving, but a woman gives no reasons for loving.”
― Fulton J. Sheen, Life Is Worth Living
Jenny, St. Teresa of Avila would agree……not.
jenny, you said “Married priests are more down to earth in their homilies.” This statement makes it sound as if you have heard homilies from numerous Married priests! Where do you live that you are being exposed to so many Married priest?
yes good point Tracy…jenny tell us please…would like to know? People think that because some one is married they understand better…really? Then tell me why is there divorce? I mean even married men admit to not understanding their spouses sometimes. I don’t know how a married priest can balance his home life and all the demands that a parish asks of him. He would have to be married to a very patient devoted wife, depending on how demanding his parish is, the wife and children may feel somewhat neglected or visa versa meaning his parishioners. But hey our church does allow it in some of the other rites. : )
FROM THE BIBLE: 1 Timothy, Chapter Three
“This saying is trustworthy: whoever aspires to the office of bishop desires a noble task. 2Therefore, a bishop must be irreproachable, married only once, temperate, self-controlled, decent, hospitable, able to teach, 3not a drunkard, not aggressive, but gentle, not contentious, not a lover of money. 4He must manage his own household well, keeping his children under control with perfect dignity; 5for if a man does not know how to manage his own household, how can he take care of the church of God? 6He should not be a recent convert, so that he may not become conceited and thus incur the devil’s punishment. 7He must also have a good reputation among outsiders, so that he may not fall into disgrace, the devil’s trap.
8Similarly, deacons must be dignified, not deceitful, not addicted to drink, not greedy for sordid gain, 9holding fast to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. 10Moreover, they should be tested first; then, if there is nothing against them, let them serve as deacons. 11Women, similarly, should be dignified, not slanderers, but temperate and faithful in everything. 12Deacons may be married only once and must manage their children and their households well. 13Thus those who serve well as deacons gain good standing and much confidence in their faith in Christ Jesus.”
No, the 11th century Church did not invent celibacy, they just mandated it on all priests, partly due to protecting Church property and partly to seal off women from the formal clergy. A married clergy will ultimately come to pass, though not in my lifetime. The movement towards married priests has already begun, and the clergy sex abuse scandal is “Exhibit A” among many other exhibits that the priesthood is on a steady decline on many fronts. Saving it by changing the celibacy rule is better than having it disappearing while being stubbornly faithful to a practice that has long ago outlived its usefulness.
A true Christian is happy and honored to do as the Lord requires, faithful to Christ’s teaching, willing to give their lives totally to God! Even if God asks one to die for the Faith! Our Lord gave His life on the Cross for our eternal salvation! What little can we give to God, Whose only Son died for us?? It is an honor and privilege to stand up as a true Christian, to “take His yoke upon us, for His yoke is easy and His burden is light,” (as the Bible says) and to be willing to give anything at all to God, or even to die for Him! A Christian is NOT an ignorant, heathen child of the material world!! He or she is a baptized child of God, filled with grace, a pilgrim on earth, seeking God’s true realm of Heaven! Earth shall pass away, but Heaven is eternal! That is our True Home! All Christians are called to live a chaste life, according to their particular state. A holy priest or nun is privileged to be called to vows of the celibate life, a foretaste of the graced Heavenly life, a statement of Faith and witness to God, of the saintly life of Heaven, our true Home, the end of our pilgrim’s long journey! The sum of the whole Catechism, is the indwelling of the Blessed Trinity in the soul, the culmination of the first statement of the original (Baltimore) Catechism, in which a child is told: the purpose of life is God’s Love, for which we are created, in His Divine Image. One can go to Heaven in any state, married, single, or as a priest or nun– but the holy vows of a priest or nun, (which include celibacy) are a great privilege! The Bible, and St. Thomas Aquinas, are both so beautifully clear (and logical!) about life and our Catholic Faith!!
Is it possible that being a priest’s wife and the mother of their children is a calling from the Holy Spirit just as is the calling for the man to the priesthood?
Judging from the very few married priests I’ve known, the unpaid task of being the wife of a priest is probably the hardest job in the United States of America, including that of First Lady (or First Laddie, as the situation demands), even if the priest involved is married licitly and not being kept hidden away in secrecy and fear. I’ve thought about this subject a lot over the years, as an ordained priest once asked me to marry him, I think in part so that he could have a good excuse for leaving the priesthood, or living a daring double life if he did not. I am glad that I refused him immediately, but I have wondered how the wives of priests fare. Amazingly well, I’d say, under the incredibly trying circumstances.
The wife of a priest is fully scrutinized for her perfect Catholicity and is expected to reflect lovely personality, character and beauty of a Madonna. The poor gal is required to be there for everyone at all times, including her husband and other parish priests after all the parishioners’ needs are met, and oh yes, her children and, lastly herself, while asking nothing of anyone.
The post deserves a stipend, a cook, a housekeeper, a laundress, and a nanny, not to mention a driver, a hairdresser, a social secretary, personal trainer and an assistant or two, as befits any celebrity with the eyes of the world focused intently on them. This poor gal can’t even have an unlisted phone number or express an opinion, despite being constantly queried.
I think requiring celibacy from priests was adopted in part as an act of mercy for women.
Protestant ministers’ wives, the wives of Eastern Rite Catholic priests and the wives of those Anglican and Episcopalian priests who have become Catholic priests via the Ordinariates all have managed to take up the challenge and survive as successfully as married women in general … maybe even better.
Jim that is a false statement that you just made. All? Really? Not all manage. How about that protestant minister whose wife murdered him? I don’t recall the case and her name but it was all over the news a while back. How about the ones who had husbands who were unfaithful …..why do people here paint a rosy picture?
and to end with “maybe even better?” Wow! I’m flabbergasted to say the least. I’m not trying to knock down what you just posted but please read your comments….the “all” and “even better” just aren’t factual.
Great points, Maryanne Leonard. And we have all heard about preacher’s children. There are many young men who will deliberately try to seduce a preacher’s daughter in some places and get them to misbehave to satisfy their own ego — like a notch in their belt. All to make the father look like a fool.
I saw a documentary on that once, and it was not pretty. That does not mean, though, that it always happens, but there IS a great deal of stress on such families.
A public school teacher and I had to give advice to a young teen one time because she was complaining to us that her father, a minister, was too strict. We listened and told her to mind her father as he was only trying to keep her out of trouble. We had daughters of our own, and I do hope she listened.
In my mind this article is more about the fact that we need start studying own Church history. If nothing else we should at the very least question why we are ok with learning it from secular and/or Protestant society.
I wonder if this site would be as willing to quote Philip Jenkins on his thoughts re: the cult of the Virgin Mary.https://www.patheos.com/blogs/anxiousbench/2013/09/why-mary/
Good Cause states 11/9/2013: “The 11th century Church did not invent celibacy, they just mandated it on all priests, partly due to protecting Church property and partly to seal off women from the formal clergy.”
GC misses the whole point Francis Spufford directly asserts: that celibacy (and implicitly vowed chastity) was for a spiritual benefit and the spiritual good of the congregation. Which is why the Orthodox Churches have preserved the same goal, taking bishops only from those who are monks, living in vowed chastity. An Orthodox clergyman stated, “We tolerate marriage of priests, but we discourage it.” The level of dedication and character is higher in a person voluntarily committed to celibacy, assuming the person doesnt prefer avoiding marriage in the 1st place for various reasons.
(GC: “As for sealing off women from the formal clergy”: who knows what GC is saying there, but it’s good for a laugh. Men and women have a way of overcoming these barriers through the ages, it appears.)
The Byzantine Catholic churches have some very beautiful, holy and wonderful married priests. The Lord certainly didn’t mind married apostles either. You know, let the Holy Spirit work as He chooses. Not all men can be celibate. Yet that doesn’t mean that he can’t be a wonderfully good priest. God calls many, and He is the one giving the very special gifts of the priesthood. So I am happy to say, God bless the married priests and their families. And if others want to remain celibate and become priests, well, God Bless them as well!
Maggie, some of the Apostles were married, but there is strong evidence that after they were ordained and had to go to different countries, that they left their wives behind in the care of the Church and remained celibate. Also, every Old Testament priest — and they were married — had to abstain from marital relations during the times that they served at the altar. Many people, even Protestant clergymen, do not know that, but it is mentioned in the Old Testament. Cardinal Stickler, who wrote “The Case for Priestly Celibacy” mentioned it in his book. So we might end up some day with both married and unmarried priests in the Latin Rite, but it will not be a cure all. It has its problems too.
I’m always surprised by the seeming perception that priests don’t choose to be celibate. I have a priest friend who very much cherishes his celibacy as a gift of himself to God. Much as I cherish sharing my sexuality with my spouse. It’s not as if these men are ordained and then surprised by the Church with the demand they remain celibate. I’m sure they all knew and freely chose to make the sacrifice. It’s equivalent to thinking that I married my husband and found out after my vows that he expected me to have sex with him. And to be faithful on top of it! As a psychologist I’m often dismayed at the culture’s and society’s insistence that sex is a ” need” and that we “can’t live without it.”. Stuff and nonsense. No one would die without sex and self-control is a hallmark of mature personality development. Pedophilia has nothing to do with celibacy either and the ” priest sex abuse scandal” is a paper tiger. Most pedophiles are married and identify as heterosexual. Marriage does not prevent pedophilia. My husband and I didn’t marry till he was 29 and I can assure you he wasn’t a child molester until I came along and saved him from it. He always was normal and would have continued to be had we not married. Pedophiles are sick individuals from all sexual orientations and both married and single. Celibacy in the priesthood should be maintained as a sign to the world of the devotion, self- control, and purity that are so lacking today.
I don’t get the correlation between “celibacy” and “purity”. Does this mean that a married individual having sexual relations with their spouse is somehow “soiled” by the conjugal act?
I’m sorry, but this is self-flagellation, the zen of sacrifice, and asceticism rotting your brain.
If we take this idea and apply it to the real world, we would have to conclude that our existence as a species depends on continued spiritual impurity. To perfect ourselves as a species would require us to cease to exist.
Some like to claim that Joseph and Mary are the Catholic model for a marriage whose example Catholic men and women should follow. If every Catholic marriage were to follow this instruction to the letter, no Catholic family would have children. Thus, every Catholic baby is evidence of spiritual failure and impurity (if we buy into the idea that celibacy makes someone “pure”).
Jon J, I do not know any faithful Catholics who thinks all married people should not engage in marital relations. That was the thinking of some early heresies. Nevertheless, abstinence from marital relations during certain times of the month or during illness, or when priests where serving at the altar, has always been taught by Christians and Orthodox Jews. Many married couples, especially as they get older, do not engage in marital relations because one or the other or both of them have serious medical problems that prevent them from doing so. We are called to remain faithful to our spouses during such times. It is not impossible to be celibate.
As one Orthodox Jewish rabbi put it, “Abstinence for awhile most often makes the heart grow fonder for the spouse and keeps one from being jaded.” In other words, you are less likely to get bored with one another.
There is, of course, nothing wrong with older married couples refraining from sex because—well—bodies don’t function as well as when young.
I just object to the correlation of “celibacy” with spiritual purity. If sexual relations between spouses is not sinful, then how is celibacy more “pure”? It seems to me this is based on a sick idea that there is something fundamentally untoward about pleasure.
This kind of thinking requires us to accept a sort of “doublethink”. On one hand, celibacy makes one more pure and holy, while on the other, childbirth to married spouses is a “blessed event”. The only consistent strand here is celebration of suffering (childbirth for women) or self-denial.
This suggests to me the idea that priests must refrain from conjugal relations before offering mass a silly custom. If the sexual act is NOT a sin, then how are they purified by abstinence before making an offering to God. God created sex. Therefore we must conclude that there is nothing “impure” about the act if we perform it in a moral fashion.
I don’t care how “traditional” a teaching this is. Just because you repeat a mistake for 2,000 years doesn’t make the idea any less in error.
Jon J, it is a discipline like all disciplines that discourages a person from going too far the other way in overindulgence and sets the act aside as sacred, just as the Kosher Law did the Israelite people. The Hebrew people introduced fasting from eating as a discipline. it is a way to bring our appetites and senses under control. We should not go too far either way. Virginity among priest and nuns has always been considered special because it requires a sacrifice of something that is good and natural and holy (marital relations) for the sake of the Kingdom of God. Christ was celibate and many want to follow him totally. The Virgin Mary was a Virgin forever since no human being is deserving of coming forth from the same womb as God the Son. She, like the Ark of the Covenant was untouchable. The Ark of the Covenant, which contained the presence of God could only be touched by very holy priests. The Virgin was protected from desecration by very holy men and women, just as was the Ark of the Covenant. Jon, you seem to suffer from a lack of understanding of the sense of the sacred, It has nothing to do with marital relations being evil in their proper place. It is just the opposite. It is has to do with the marital act itself being sacred and only to be used at the proper time and for the right reasons — love between a man and woman and taking part in the creation of other human beings. That is a sacred and holy act and not to be misused among Jews and Christians. You need to read Blessed John Paul II’s writings on this, such as “The Theology of the Body” to understand true Catholic thinking.
Jon J, you are also under the secular misconception that everyone has or should have a strong sex drive, or it is necessarily unnatural. That is not true and it is no problem, unless the person chooses to marry and children. At least one well known nun, and I will not name her for privacy sake although she said it publically, has admitted that she has never had a problem with sexual temptations. It seems to me that she was an excellent candidate for some Sisterhood or a monastery. Contrary to popular opinion, I am sure that there are some men like that too, and they are normal in the sense that they do not consider marital relation an evil. but for the majority of us it is a struggle to remain “pure” either celibate or faithful to ones spouse. It does get easier and easier with time though. As the saying goes, “Practice makes perfect.”
Sense of the sacred. Hmmm….that’s interesting.
I suspect that’s mostly rooted in intuition and emotion rather than abstract thought. Because, you’re right, I do not “feel” much with respect to ceremony, ritual, or tradition. I think that’s because, in my youth, I had a horrible problem with an out-of-control temper.
The way I harnessed it was by becoming an abstract thinker, and trying to disengage my actions from my emotions. I have done that so well, that by this time, most people I know are unaware I even have a temper, much less an explosive one. This includes most of my younger family members.
How I did this was though martial arts. Yet, it wasn’t through achieving zen-like self discipline. I did it because I wanted to win tournaments.
Someone once told me that a person could do things with adrenaline that they weren’t normally able to do. Since I was always the smallest kid around through most of my childhood (including in my judo club), I started to manipulate my temper to add juice to my tournament performances. This created a problem because rage could be exploited by skilled tacticians. I somehow learned to get mad while still maintaining my tactical ability on the mat. I starting doing this when I was around 9.
Once I learned how to do this, I no longer had a problem controlling my anger. However, ever since, I’ve pretty much been ruled by abstract analysis rather than intuition or feelings.
What you have written makes me wonder if losing a sense of the sacred is part of what I have traded in order to master irrational rage.
Anne T, I know many people don’t have much in terms of a sex drive.
Many inter-sexed individuals are like this. For example, if your hormone levels are “off”, lack of a sex drive isn’t at all surprising. Also, I know of an autistic professor whose specialty is bovine behavior. She simply doesn’t “get” sexual relationships. She doesn’t focus on other people and “empathy” is sort of strange to her.
Though, I must confess, while I “get” it as an abstract concept, I lack subjective understanding.
JonJ, the sexual act is not sinful for married (one man and one woman) persons.
All others are expected to be celibate if you are Catholic.
If you live merely for pleasure whether it be sex, drugs, etc. you will never understand.
If you are interested in the Catholic Faith and better explanations read the Catechism of the Catholic Church, second edition.
Anne T. … I think perhaps the sex drive comes and goes in life. When I lost Helen, mine went to sub-zero.
Just a tidbit IMHO. People don’t give each other enough credit. They don’t give women enough credit. There are many other occupations where the man stays away for days and the wife has to balance the rest. Also, there are many other occupations that the man cannot divulge information about coworkers clients etc. And if the old saying goes that the priests forget what what they talked about in the confessional so they can’t have the pillow talk. Priests are lonely too. And if they made it optional than maybe there would be less of them leaving and be happier. Celebacy is a beautiful gift, but so is the love of a spouse.
No rosey, if they do a good job as a Priest, including their daily required breviary prayers said several times a day,
saying daily Mass, hearing confessions, giving sacraments to the dead and dying at all times of day and night, funerals, marriage pre-cana classes in the evenings, etc,, etc, etc, –
Priests do not have time for the demands of family life – wife and children.
The Priesthood is not an 8 to 5, five day a week job.
Those who support marriage for Priests clearly do NOT understand ALL the work that a Priest does, and should ask their pastor for his complete job description for a better understanding.
* * * * However, it would be nice if everyone would ask their Parish Priest(s) to dinner at your homes to insure they are not lonely during their free time (which isn’t much).
We do this at our parish and we have to book months in advance because our Priest’s calendar is so full. There are only 365 days a year, and we have 1350 families. Our Priests do not book more than a year in advance.
On average every 6 or 7 years Priests are transferred to a New Parish at the decision of the Diocese Bishop.
Having been Officially Punished by California & its Turkey Baster Creationist Courts (Cost me a Fire Dept. career) – for such grave transgressions as the Politically Un-Good practice of ‘Abstinence’…
I assure all loyal lurkers our there – when the Gaystapo Insists that “Abstinence Doesn’t Work” – they mean it; and will retaliate agains all who fail to conform – Particularly by Facts or Personal Examples.
I distinguish between ‘Celibacy’ and ‘Abstinence’ (one carries more permanent Religious Tones; the other more shorter duration Avoidance until Marriage, Or for Secular / Hygiene reasons), although both work
Like Gravity: Regardless of whether one Believes that God Created It, or it ‘just resulted’ from a Big Bang long ago – Stepping off a tall building without parachute Both produce a similar Gravitational results for either test subject = ‘Ground Splatter’.
Abstinence Works, and provided it is practiced properly can lead to true Romance & Love that Lasts beyond infatuation.
Abstinence also provides complete protection from the alphabet soup of STD;s – now so gaily entering treatment resistance by spread through the tax subsidized ‘Conga Line of Buggery…
And can save a lot of Wedding Night embarrassment, trying to explain easily avoided conditions.
The benefits of living without sex
Sex sells, and thus we constantly hear about the so-called ‘benefits’ of having an active, even promiscuous, sex life.
Here are just a few of the many benefits of living a sex-free life, whether it is temporary or permanent. We welcome any additions!
Michael … I try to understand your posts … I really do. Could you maybe help me out with this one? Did you lose your fire department career because you wern’t sexually active? How did that happen? BTW, I agree with you that abstinence can lead to true Romance & Love that Lasts beyond infatuation.
The personal opinions of posters do not matter – regarding celibacy.
It is clear that a few of the posters are heretics if they are Catholic at all.
Let the non-Catholics dictate to their own Church, or clearly state that they are not Catholic in each of their posts.
When a man becomes a Catholic Priest, or woman a Nun, they take a VOW of celibacy.
They know this prior to even considering the Religious life.
There should be no sexual acts outside of marriage between one man and one woman after marriage.
Those who are single have more time to devote to GOD only.
This SACRED SCRIPTURE verse best explains the potential lifestyle of those who wish to remain unmarried (celibate).
1 Cor 7:32-35
” I want you to be free from anxieties.
The unmarried man is anxious about the affairs of the Lord, how to please the Lord;
but the married man is anxious about worldly affairs, how to please his wife, and his interests are divided.
And the unmarried woman or girl is anxious about the affairs of the Lord, how to be holy in body and spirit;
but the married woman is anxious about worldly affairs, how to please her husband.
I say this for your own benefit, not to lay any restraint upon you, but to promote good order and to secure your undivided devotion to the Lord. “